Manual Sprint and Reaction Training for Soccer (German Soccer Drill Collections Book 5)

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J Sports Sci ; 29 8 : Positional interchanges influence the physical and technical match performance variables of elite soccer players. The influence of a congested calendar on physical performance in elite soccer. J Strength Cond Res ; 25 8 : Contextual variables and time-motion analysis in soccer. Int J Sports Med ; 32 6 : The effect of score-line on work rate in elite soccer. J Sports Sci ; 19 1 : Pollard R. Home advantage in football: A current review of an unsolved puzzle.

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J Sports Sci ; 28 3 : Rainer P. The influence of soccer playing actions on the recovery kinetics after a soccer match. J Strength Cond Res ; 28 6 : Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players. Eur J Appl Physiol ; Effect of 2 soccer matches in a week on physical performance and injury rate. Am J Sports Med ; 38 9 : A congested football calendar and the wellbeing of players: correlation between match exposure of European footballers before the World Cup and their injuries and performances during that World Cup.

Br J Sports Med ; 38 4 : The effect of cumulative fatigue on activity profiles of professional soccer players during a congested fixture period. Biol Sport ; 27 3 : The effect of a succession of matches on the activity profiles of professional soccer players. Science and football VI. London: Routledge ; pp. Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: a critical review of the literature. Sports Med ; 45 10 : Impaired sleep and recovery after night matches in elite football players.

Effects of different recovery interventions on anaerobic performances following preseason soccer training. J Strength Cond Res ; 21 3 : Urhausen A, Kindermann W. Diagnosis of overtraining: what tools do we have? Sports Med ; 32 2 : Bangsbo J, Lindquist F. Comparison of various exercise tests with endurance performance during soccer in professional players. Prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the overtraining syndrome: joint consensus statement of the European College of Sport Science and the American College of Sports Medicine. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 45 1 : Halson SL. Monitoring training load to understand fatigue in athletes.

Sports Med ; 44 Suppl 2 : S Preliminary results on mood state, salivary testosterone:cortisol ratio and team performance in a professional soccer team. Eur J Appl Physiol ; 86 2 : Recovery from high-intensity training sessions in female soccer players. J Strength Cond Res ; 25 6 : Field and laboratory testing in young elite soccer players. Br J Sports Med ; 38 2 : Physiology of soccer: an update. Sports Med ; 35 6 : Svensson M, Drust B.

Testing soccer players. The effect of a combined high-intensity strength and speed training program on the running and jumping ability of soccer players. J Strength Cond Res ; 19 2 : Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 33 11 : Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol.

J Strength Cond Res ; 17 2 : Changes in jump performance and muscle activity following soccer-specific exercise. J Sports Sci ; 26 2 : Reliability and validity of a soccer-specific test of prolonged repeated-sprint ability. Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 2 2 : Game-induced fatigue patterns in elite female soccer. J Strength Cond Res ; 24 2 : Rapid muscle force capacity changes after soccer match play.

Int J Sports Med ; 30 4 : Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries. Sports Med ; 2 4 : Influence of cold-water immersion on indices of muscle damage following prolonged intermittent shuttle running. J Sports Sci ; 25 11 : The stretch-shortening cycle : a model to study naturally occurring neuromuscular fatigue.

Sports Med ; 36 11 : Why is countermovement jump height greater than squat jump height? Med Sci Sports Exerc ; 28 11 : J Strength Cond Res ; 29 9 : Enoka RM, Duchateau J. Muscle fatigue: what, why and how it influences muscle function. J Physiol ; 1 : Effect of a simulated soccer match on the functional hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio in amateur female players. Scand J Med Sci Sports ; 23 4 : Greig M. The influence of soccer-specific fatigue on peak isokinetic torque production of the knee flexors and extensors. Am J Sports Med ; 36 7 : The effects of multidirectional soccer-specific fatigue on markers of hamstring injury risk.

J Sci Med Sport ; 13 1 : Muscle fatigue induced by exercise simulating the work rate of competitive soccer. J Sports Sci ; 21 11 : Measurement tools used in the study of eccentric contraction-induced injury. Sports Med ; 27 1 : Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: theoretical and applied implications. Sports Med ; 34 1 : Validity of simple field tests as indicators of match-related physical performance in top-level professional soccer players.

Int J Sports Med ; 28 3 : Repeated sprints with directional changes: do angles matter? J Sports Sci ; 30 6 : Relationship between measured maximal oxygen uptake and aerobic endurance performance with running repeated sprint ability in young elite soccer players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 47 4 : Relationship between different measures of aerobic fitness and repeated-sprint ability in elite soccer players.

J Strength Cond Res ; 24 8 : Relationship between oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in repeated running sprints. Eur J Appl Physiol ; 95 1 : Hughes M, Franks I. Analysis of passing sequences, shots and goals in soccer. J Sports Sci ; 23 5 : Russell M, Kingsley M. Influence of exercise on skill proficiency in soccer. Sports Med ; 41 7 : Performance of soccer passing skills under moderate and high-intensity localized muscle fatigue. J Strength Cond Res ; 20 1 : Reliability of ratings of perceived effort regulation of exercise intensity.

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Fitness in Soccer

Int J Sports Med ; 16 6 : Respiratory and muscular perceived efforts after official games in professional soccer players. J Strength Cond Res ; For more information regarding the statistics, the reader is referred to the separate articles. During normal sprint action Phase 2 , CV increased to 1. No bias was observed for m sprint times, but SB timing generated 0. Table 4 reports differences in performance time associated with the three starting positions compared, all based on Dartfish video analysis.

The impact of starting position on 40 m performance time was statistically significant and much larger than the typical variation from test to test. In contrast, no predictable trend across playing levels was observed for CMJ performance. Panel A Panel B 2. Time m s 2. Ju 1s. Differing letters indicate significant differences among groups. Forwards were the fastest players, ahead of defenders, midfielders and goalkeepers, respectively.

Time m s. Fo ef. Sprint performance peaked in the age range years for men, while no differences in m sprint times were observed across the female categories. No differences in CMJ height were observed across male and female age categories. The athletes were also equally recovered 48 hours after the respective sprint training sessions. Figure 6 shows individual changes in mean sprint time from pre- to post test. Typical variation for sprint time was 0.

No significant between group differences for the performance parameters were observed. All other effect magnitudes between or within groups were trivial or small. We observed 0. Moreover, weekly group mean changes in repeated sprint performance up to 0. SU SU. U 90 10 Figure 6: Individual changes in mean sprint time from pre- to post test. No significant between group differences in anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical variables were observed from pre to post-test in study VI, and effect magnitudes were trivial to small.

No other within or between group differences in anthropometric, physiological and biomechanical variables were observed in study VII. Changes in mean sprint time were moderately correlated with changes in BLa- from pre- to post-test. Changes in best sprint time showed a very large to nearly perfect correlation with changes in mean sprint time. Our retrospective analysis of sprint test data revealed that sprinting performance distinguishes groups from different performance levels and positions.

While sprint velocity for males peaks in the age range years, with small but significant declines in velocity thereafter, female soccer players struggle to improve their sprinting skills after their teens. These cross-sectional data also suggested positive development in sprinting velocity among elite performers over a 15 year period of testing. Concurrent measurements of two participants cycling as fast as possible with a tube vertically mounted in front of the bike demonstrated that SB and DB were valid to the limits of precision of the instruments.

During normal sprint action involving rotating limbs, absolute time differences ranged from The significantly slower SB sprint times 0. No significant bias was observed for m sprint times, and absolute time differences were somewhat smaller compared to m times.

The greater error in the m split is likely attributable to the differing start position mechanics and forward-lean of athletes during acceleration contributing to an earlier obstruction of the SB gate compared to the more upright position during maximum speed sprinting. Study I demonstrated that a true m sprint time of 2. Up to 0. Among male soccer players, this represents the difference between the. We believe that 0. Such aspects are of particular significance when coaches and athletes are interested in measuring running speed over very short distances.

The starting method and timing system used can, however, combine to generate large absolute differences in sprint time. Table 4 shows that 40 m times triggered by hand release from a 3-point stance, breaking a photocell beam from a standing start, and releasing the front foot from the ground during a standing start generate 0. At the extreme, a seemingly outstanding 40 m sprint time of 4. This large time difference is explained by three main components:.

Reaction time is included in block starts, not standing starts. Horizontal center of gravity velocity at time triggering. The method of sprint timing used can result in much greater differences in sprint time than observed sprint performance range in soccer players Table 5. These differences are essentially absolute. Therefore, their impact on the interpretation of shorter sprint distance performances would be even greater.

The young athletes in this study were not all sprint specialists, but were experienced with block start conditions as well as the other starting conditions employed. While the absolute differences observed might vary somewhat with the experience of the athletes being tested, we believe the correction factors quantified here provide a reasonable framework for comparing sprint performances across timing methods. To our knowledge, these are the first studies to demonstrate that linear sprinting ability is a performance distinguishing factor in male and female soccer.

Previous studies have either involved players that did not adequately represent variation in playing standard or included small sample size. Based on the present findings, it is tempting to claim that improved sprinting skills can make a football player more effective, and therefore more valuable. Faster players are probably able to utilize their technical and tactical skill better than slower players with otherwise identical skills. The chance of dribbling an opponent out of position, or successfully defending an attack, increases with improved sprinting skills.

Soccer athletes must develop multiple qualities, and coaches should take sprinting velocity into account within the larger skill set of soccer. According to Reilly et al. Several authors have reported that elite youth or selected players around puberty tend to be faster than non-elite youth and non-selected players Vaeyens et al. Thus, selection of players, testing, and physical conditioning of the athletes should be reflected by the importance of speed.

This study did not demonstrate a clear relationship between CMJ height and soccer performance level. This is similar to the values achieved by Portuguese U19 elite players, Italian National team and elite players, and French elite players Cometti et al. This is similar to the values reported for female Spanish elite players and Italian national team players Castagna et al. Taken together, the present findings and those of other studies do not provide enough evidence to claim that CMJ ability is a performance distinguishing factor in soccer.

It may be that a certain minimum of vertical jump ability is required, and our data indicate that mean CMJ values in the range and cm are sufficient to perform at an elite level in male and female soccer, respectively. This does not mean that CMJ height beyond this level is not beneficial. Several studies have reported improved sprint or agility skills as a result of increased power in lower limb muscles Alves et al. Forwards were the fastest players ahead of defenders, while midfielders and goalkeepers were slowest Figure 3.

All differences observed were larger than test-retest reliability revealed in study II. The internal ranking by player position is in accordance with the findings by Boone et al. Physical characteristics may vary across clubs and nations, depending on tactical dispositions and differences in the athlete selection process over time. Gil et al. Coaches may select the fastest players for attacking positions due to the belief that team success depends primarily on the forwards.

Buchheit et al. Sprinting ability must be seen in relationship to the physical demands of the different positions on the field. Our playing position categorization is somewhat limited, but forwards and defenders are probably the fastest players because they are involved in most decisive duels during match play Rampinini et al. Thus, these players should perhaps spend more time on sprint training compared to the other playing positions. Midfielders cover the longest distance during games, indicating physical qualities other than sprinting velocity may be more important for this position Vigne et al.

Taken together, the present findings and previous published studies indicate that players in different positions should prioritize different physical conditioning regimes to solve different tasks during play. Our data showed that male midfielders had lower vertical jump capacity compared to the other positions study III. This is in contrast to Sporis et al.

Goalkeepers performed better in CMJ than sprinting relative to the other position groups in study III, which is in accordance to Boone et al. Goalkeepers were also the tallest players, supporting the logical expectation of explosive range as an important performance factor for goalkeepers. No significant differences in CMJ height were observed across playing positions for the female players in study IV.

However, the results show a similar trend as for men. Despite significant differences, the physical differences across playing positions in Norwegian soccer seem relatively small in practical terms. This indicates that mostly all players within the same team perform similar physical training. No studies have so far carefully examined velocity and power characteristics across age among male soccer players.

Mujika et al. Athletics statistics show that the world top 50 sprinters achieved their best performances at a mean age of 25 3. No further cross-sectional improvement in sprint velocity was observed after the age years in our study. Thus, peak sprinting performance within the larger skill set of soccer peaks years earlier compared to when sprint optimization is the only training goal.

This stagnation may be considered in the context of match program and specific training. It is possible that extensive soccer training, including hrs. No differences in CMJ ability were observed across the male age categories. This finding reinforces the notion that vertical jump performance is less important than sprinting ability in soccer.

No age related differences in sprint and CMJ performance were observed among the. Previous studies indicate that peak performance in speed and vertical jump is achieved in the mid-teens for female soccer players. In a study of female athletes years , Vescovi et al. Female soccer players struggle to improve their sprinting velocity and vertical jump ability as seniors beyond the level achieved as juniors. Similar patterns are seen in available statistics from Norwegian athletics as for the girls in this study.

Female sprinters and long jumpers improved their performance level from 13 to 17 years of age before plateauing, while corresponding male athletes achieve their peak performance level several years later Norwegian Athletics Association, Increased body weight might contribute to the failure of continued training to result in improved sprint velocity and power performance.

According to the Norwegian elite series team coaches, primarily their very best players continue participating in soccer after years of age. This selection bias may mask a small decline in sprinting and power performance occurring already in the mid 20s among females. The time epoch analysis was restricted to male professionals and female National team athletes, and all of these players were tested as part of routine testing procedures. The female National team players and three male elite series teams tested at least once a year throughout the entire period, and the development of sprinting velocity for these teams demonstrated a positive trend.

Therefore the difference observed cannot be explained by a selection bias. Instead, we hypothesize that this provides some evidence for the contention that Norwegian professional players have become faster over time. To the extent that Norwegian soccer developments mirror international developments, these results have. This reinforces the assumption that sprinting skills are becoming more and more important in modern soccer. Interestingly, our data showed no development in CMJ height during the corresponding time epochs.

We are not aware of studies reporting development in short sprinting distances without development in CMJ ability. Our results remained consistent even when only players who performed both sprint and CMJ testing were considered. These findings indicate that sprint and vertical jump are specific and independent qualities. However, individual test results from study II and III shows that the very fastest male soccer players may achieve m sprint times on par with m sprint finalists from national athletics championships.

In practical terms, individual differences in sprinting skills are even more critical than mean differences among groups of players. Our database material from the Norwegian Olympic Training Center, including 40 m sprint tests of male and female elite players between and , shows that the 75th th percentile difference is 0. Based on average velocity over the distance, the fastest quartile is at least 1 m ahead of the slowest quartile over 20 m.

Similarly, the 90th th percentile difference over 20 m sprint is equivalent to more than 2 m. Thus, peak velocity is decisive in longer sprint duels. Even though this thesis has focused on m sprinting skills, the results in paper III and IV demonstrates almost identical trends for maximum sprinting skills as a function of playing level, position and development over time.

This stands in contrast to the opinion of many coaches who believe that sprinting skills only over very short distances are important in soccer. Thus, the ability to either create such gaps as an attacker or close those gaps as a defender can be fundamental to success in elite level soccer. The chance of dribbling an opponent out of position, or successfully defending an attack, increases with greater acceleration and sprinting ability. These two training sessions were equally rated in terms of session RPE.

Furthermore, no differences in sprint performance were observed between the three initial pre test sprints and the 3x20 m sprints performed 48 hours after the first training session for the maximal and sub-maximal training groups, respectively, indicating similar recovery status two days after the sprint training sessions used. Based on these observations, we conclude that the two repeated sprint training sessions were effort matched.

In contrast, repeated sprinting at maximal intensity induced a progressive increase in heart rate, as well as BLa- at or above the typical lactate threshold range described for endurance athletes. Previously, we have observed unaltered m sprint performance, but improved m speed as a result of weekly repeated 40 m sprints at maximal or near maximal intensity over ten weeks Tnnessen et al. Taken together with track and field age-group statistics Norwegian Athletics Federation, , age-group analyses from large retrospective data collections in soccer players Figure 4 and.

This change was higher than the observed typical variation. In contrast, SL is considered a more limiting factor among athletes of lower sprint standard Armstrong et al. This indicates that identical sprint performance can be achieved with varying locomotion efficiency among athletes of lower sprint standard, which is in accordance with observations made by Hunter et al.

The concept of training at slightly sub-maximal sprinting intensity is derived from coaching practice in track and field athletics, where competitive distances are 60 m and longer Vittori, It is possible that sub-maximal sprint training is more appropriate for typical athletic sprinting distances m compared to m accelerations. In strength- and endurance training, reduced training intensity can be compensated for with substantially increased accumulated work to enhance performance Kraemer et al.

However, 20 m sprints are comprised of high to maximal acceleration from a resting state and continuing through the timed distance. In this condition, energy demands during the acceleration phase greatly exceed those at peak velocity di Prampero et al. The change in kinetic energy 0.

This possibility remains to be explored. However, the 90SUP group improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance by a moderate margin compared to the other groups, indicating that sub-maximal sprint locomotion efficiency had improved. Future studies should therefore explore the effect of directly supervised training with a gradual increase in intensity from sub-maximal to maximal sprint velocity.

In contrast to study VII, the training experts in those studies were allowed to adjust the total training load during the interventions. Based on these observations, one could speculate that the effect of expert supervision during training is optimized when combined with greater flexibility in the day-to- day training prescription. More important, weekly changes in group mean values up to 0.

This weekly or seasonal variation is considerably higher than the observed typical variation during a single sprint testing session. Our findings emphasize the need for more detailed information about overall conditioning load, accepting that intensity and structuring of training are challenging variables.

A perfectly designed conditioning program for certain capabilities may limit other important qualities and vice versa. Coaches and conditioning experts have to balance their training methods and exercises in order to optimize different skills in relation to their contribution to overall soccer performance. More sprint training sessions per week or a longer intervention period could increase the potential for developing faster players.

Unfortunately, most of their respective team coaches were not willing to sacrifice further soccer training sessions, even in the off-season or early pre-season. Our interventions were shaped by several training- related constraints within the overall soccer training program. We argue that these constraints are indeed an important aspect of assessing the practical efficacy of training interventions in team sport.

Accepting the limitations of interpreting muscle energetics from blood lactate concentration, there was a moderate trend towards lower individual lactate production with reduced repeated sprint performance, and vice versa. Moreover, the results revealed a very large to nearly perfect correlation between changes in best sprint time and changes in mean sprint time during repeated 20 m sprints from pre- to post test study VI and VII. This finding strongly supports the conclusion of Pyne et al. Our results support this observation, as the. Changes in sprint performance were only moderately correlated with changes in CMJ performance among the players in study VII, while this relationship was non-significant in study VI.

According to Thomas et al. The findings in study VI are in accordance with the trends over time analyses in study III and IV, namely that development in short sprinting distances may occur without development in CMJ ability at a group level.

Pass combination over two sides for 9 to 10 players

This error source alone represents three times the value of the smallest worthwhile performance enhancement for this variable in team sports. The observed magnitude and incidence of time differences must be taken into account when selecting timing system. Single beam timing is not recommended for scientists and practitioners wishing to derive accurate and reliable sprint time results.

Moreover, starting method and timing system used can combine to generate large absolute differences in sprint time. Times triggered by hand release from a 3-point stance, breaking a photocell beam from a standing start, and releasing the front foot from the ground during a standing start generated 0. Comparison of sprint timing results without consideration of the specific start configuration and timing methods can make for a lot of confusion.

The present investigation provides useful correction factors that should improve the validity of performance comparisons across research studies. Moreover, our cross-sectional studies demonstrated a clear relationship between average sprinting speed and standard of play, supporting the assumption that speed is a crucial performance factor in soccer. Sprint performance varies as a function to playing position. Forwards are the fastest players ahead of defenders, midfielders and goalkeepers. While sprint velocity for males peaks in the age range years, with small but significant decreases in velocity thereafter, female soccer players struggle to improve their sprinting skills after their teens.

We also observed a positive development in sprinting velocity among elite performers over a 15 years period of testing, indicating that sprinting skills are becoming more and more important in modern soccer. Soccer athletes have lots of qualities to develop, and coaches should take sprinting velocity into account within the larger skill set of soccer.

Selection of players, testing, and physical conditioning of the athletes should be reflected by the importance of speed. Our intervention studies showed that weekly repeated sprint training sessions at maximal or sub-maximal sprint speed were not sufficient to improve performance outcomes for soccer related sprinting performance.

In the absence of evidence supporting the choice of specific training methods at the group level, we suggest that it is essential to diagnose each individual and develop training interventions that target their key physiological and technical weaknesses. Future research should focus more on the relationship between physical demands of the game, capacity profiles among players, and consequences for long term planning of individual fitness programs in soccer. Short-term effects of complex and contrast training in soccer players' vertical jump, sprint, and agility abilities.

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Biomechanics of sprint running. A review. Challenging a dogma of exercise physiology: does an incremental exercise test for valid VO2max determination really need to last between 8 and 12 minutes? Miller J. Burst of speed. Fatigue in soccer: a brief review. Age-related differences in repeated-sprint ability in highly trained youth football players. In-season effect of short-term sprint and power training programs on elite junior soccer players. Moderate running and plyometric training during off- season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

All time statistics. Updated February 3rd, Oliver JL. Is a fatigue index a worthwhile measure of repeated sprint ability? Energy cost and metabolic power in elite soccer: a new match analysis approach. Linear dependence of muscle phosphocreatine kinetics on oxidative capacity. Am J Physiol ; Effects of rest interval on isokinetic strength and functional performance after short term high intensity training. Effective conditioning of female soccer players. Relationships between repeated sprint testing, speed, and endurance.

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Validation of a computerized metabolic measurement system Oxycon-Pro during low and high intensity exercise. He considers himself a lifelong student of the game who sees spreading knowledge as a way of getting better. Author : Steven Turek Goal : Eder Portugal against France or Ronaldo against Griezmann — this is how you could have called the final game in the European Championship. It was interesting before the game, especially the question how both teams would try to take the respective Stars out of the game. Unfortunately, that was at least taken too literally from one side.

The Portuguese superstar had to leave the game too early. What were the consequences, you read in the analysis! Soccer Lessons from the World Cup Winner! Since Ronaldo could not play long, we just focus on Griezmann. Portugal tried at least partly very man-oriented against the best scorer of the French. In itself not a problem to the more centrally lasting Griezmann, whose evasive movements were usually limited to running towards the ball.

Example : France is in the buildup. Portugal defends a little bit too man-oriented. Griezmann is just as closely defended as Payet. Larger problems had the Portuguese, however, from another man-orientation. Payet was defended on the left wing, before even getting the pass, very closely by Cedric. The result was a larger space between Cedric and Pepe. Unfortunately, for the French Giroud used this space every now and then and got the ball with a view to the outside line, usually outside the box.

Example: Giroud uses the distance between Cedric and Pepe. No problem for Portugal, because even if Giroud puts a ball into the center, who is expected to be the target man?! That could have been used much better by France. Payet remains outside, Giroud remains inside.

Griezmann uses the open space. This has several advantages. Griezmann is a pretty bad match-up for Pepe, who would have to defend more outside. This would leave Fonte in a 1v1 situation against Giroud, who now is the target man in the box. Example : The ball is with Payet on the wing. His pace and left foot would give a great opportunity to play the ball in the box to Giroud. The alternative for Portugal would be to position Cedric significantly more inward in order to prevent this pass. Example: A run by Griezmann in the depth would force Cedric continue to stand more inside in the next action, which opens room for Payet in 1 against.

In the first half, but you could also see clearly another core relationship in football: The way a team defense influences the potential to counter. That said — one of the players with the highest individual skillset in the world was not long available…. Note: This way of defending makes you also extremely vulnerable for counterpressing, as seen in a few scenes in the first half. Example : Giroud puts pressure on the outside. The site is closed for Portugal. If the ball is won which happened Griezmann is the target man in the central attack which happened. We remain with this analysis on the French left side.

Because one can demonstrate some more fundamental mechanisms in football. Over the second half, the left-back Evra positioned himself in a much higher position. Basically, of course, a good idea. The only problem is that a low-block opponent simply runs backwards. This led to a situational five back formation of the Portuguese and the former advantage for France, that is explained in the first part was gone.

Example: Evra runs at the wing position. Portugal reacts and plays with five players in the back — even more difficult to score. As Coman came for Payet, one could actually think that this situation improved because Coman normally is a true winger which gives Evra not a lot of situations to occupy the wing — normally…. Note : This is actually a good example of how a coach can naturally change the style of play with one substitution.

Due to coach default or natural player behavior, we will probably never know. Final Thoughts: Why Pogba was not positioned higher and was more likely to find the interaction with Griezmann is, will probably be a mystery for ever. That Portugal ultimately scored in the addition time one could only speculate: Perhaps the 3 day break were in contrast to the French 2 days a small advantage.

Author: Steven Turek Goal: Griezmann Before starting the game, the set up was really clear. Germany would dominate and have to seek solutions against low block defense. France would probably rely on counterattacks by Griezmann. Somewhat unexpectedly, France presented themselves from the beginning aggressively.

That they could not hold on to that pressure could easily be seen. The distances between the parts of the team and especially to the first-pass options after a ball-win by Germany were too big. Germany showed in the following minutes usual dominance, controlled the half spaces and provided with short crosses from half space to half space that France had to focus on defending.

Example: The ball is in a buildup situation. Germany does not use at the level of the opposing strikers and midfielders the entire width, forcing France to react to every pass. Rapid shifts between the two half positions shall provide good opportunities to break through. What France lacked in the first minutes, now belongs to the DNA of the German game — counterpressing!

Meanwhile, no one gets a scary feeling when a German loses the ball — we can still be sure that the ball will be back soon. Example: France wins the ball in his own half blue circle. Griezmann has actually a huge space in front of him to counter attack. But all that does not matter, because in the immediate distance to the Ball pressure can be provided. Example: The ball is shifted to Kimmich on the wing. Can overruns the French defensive line and thus offers a good way to play into the depth. The defensive chain must react and run back.

The open space between the chains can be used for a short pass. That France nevertheless had some compelling attacking sequences relied on two reasons. The first reason is Griezmann, who opened up perfectly and showed simultaneously scary effectively between the chains shots on goal, passes or free kicks. The other reason was the somewhat improved building game of the French. Did they miss a consistent playmaking with initiate dribbling defenders in the tournament so far, they showed improvement in this game.

Example: After a brief build-up phase of the French center-back dribbles and thus pulls the opponent to him. In the second half after a few minutes the score should have been keyword: Giroud. After this brief shock, the game represented itself as usual. Germany with a lot of possession. France very in their low block defense. Unfortunately for Germany they missed effective passing between the chains. In the first case turning around is very difficult. The latter could Germany realized only in a few scenes.

That, his substitution Mustafi lost the decisive duel, had less to do Mustafi rather than his opponent. Perhaps in past analyzes it already became clear that Pogba is one of my favorite players and those scenes are exactly the reason. With one move he completely confuses Mustafi.

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Exactly these artists outside of athleticism and strength, which makes this sport so special — at least for me. Conclusion: Germany presented itself as in the entire tournament with successful ball recovery and general dominance, however, they missed also as in the previous tournament effective intermediate chain Game and solutions in the last row. Unfortunate only that the decision will be made by a penalty and a crass individual error.

France may rely on its world-class players Griezmann all the time and Pogba at least temporarily and has not to forget, a whole nation behind them on Sunday! Author: Steven Turek Goals: Ronaldo The set up was clear: Wales has reached the semi-finals with a lot of passion and tactically clever Defending as a surprise team. Due to this constellation and combination of strengths and weaknesses ones could declare Wales as the favorite — just ask Belgium. As expected defended Wales in , which made it difficult to get through for Portugal immensely.

Nevertheless, Portugal showed good approaches to crack the defense organization, unfortunately there were too few of such sequences to give the audience a really exciting game. Example: The ball is driven from the left, Wales narrowed the space and Portugal takes a short cross on Sanchez.

He dribbles and plays at the last moment the ball to the wing. Overall, a good sequence. However, the right-back Cedric could have taken a higher and narrower stand to dub not only the midfield, but also the defenders successfully. The only chance Wales produces came by a corner kick. Considering the good execution.

Example : All Welsh run towards the goal and get marked man oriented. This opens up the space in the back and allows a good shot opportunity for Bale. Speaking of corner kicks. It was a corner in minute 50 th that decides the outcome of the game in favor of Portugal.

Here you can download a summary of the presentation (German/Slovakian)

Ronaldo jumps simply the highest and scores for the Portuguese. In the 53th minutes Wales could get the ball out of the dangerous zone, Ronaldo gets a free look at the goal and Nani ultimately scores. Portugal focused on defending and took away virtually all the possibilities to create spaces for Wales. On the other hand, Portugal got the same exact spaces as they won the ball.

Since Ronaldo not participated in the defense process, he was the first option in transition. That Wales was not able to create chances, had many reasons. Firstly, the absence of Ramsey for the game structure and the transition game were noticeable. Moreover, Bale had a tendency to be too much to get towards the ball in order to be integrated into the game. As we all know, Bale is rather a player who needs to get the ball to the open field, to be effective. Example : Bale gets the ball in the right in-between space, in this position he has no option with the ball and kicks the ball across the field.

That this is not really Bales role is obvious. Conclusion: Portugal only needed two good sequences to reach the cup final Wales as well as Iceland showed that tournament success does not only depends on player material, but also comes from the match coaching and the mentality of the team. For what Wales as well as Iceland will always be remembered.

The Italian Coach Portal allfootball organized a congress from This year for the first time there was a German speaker. Steven Turek hold a presentation counter pressing and demonstrated forms of training to do so. Arrigo Sacchi , the coach recalled in his speech the importance of training young players for Italy. He then talked about his preferred strategy in the game design and underlined once more that a flat building up an attack is the best solution. He then rounded off his speech with anecdotes from his incomparable career. Other presentations dealed for example with the teambuilding.

Sergio Borra gave a compelling presentation that based on the principles of Dale Carnegie. Other presentations came from Angelo Pereni specialist in strategies of defense , Isabella Gasperini specialist in psychology , Andrea Cristi 1 to 1 specialist and Massimo De Paoli owner of a coaching school. A very interesting lecture and an exciting practical demonstration provided Massimo de Paoli, the inventor of the method Castle. Although the lecture by Steven took place at the end of the Congress, and this was delayed by the previous speakers over 30 minutes, listening to the coach with a high concentration the execution Steven Turek.

Here is the first eBook available in the CoachCenter:. It gives detailed information on how to efficiently open and use space against deeply defending opponents and provides concrete solutions for the build-up. Based on the presented solutions, training exercises from simple to complex will be explained with specific emphasize on the right coaching. This literature is recommended for all coaches who want to develop a deeper understanding on the own attacking philosophy and serves as ideal source to acquire soccer-specific expertise.

Now you can take part at his seminars while watching his seminar series more than 3 hours and 40 Minutes on DVD. Author: Steven Turek Goal: Gomez Germany pushed, as in the first few games of their full-back as high as possible and thus drew the opposing midfielder back what forced Northern Ireland to a 6: 3: 1 organization.

If you play against such a low block team it is important to occupy positions that offer as many options as possible. Example : Washington is outplayed. Boateng has carried the ball towards the second line. From these positions they have a good angle to play passes to the attacking center, to pass the ball to the outside, to play a cross into the box, to dribble and shoot themselves or to play gap pass.

Really good chances and scored a goals created Germany out of short transition phases. Whenever Northern Ireland had to organize first after they lost the ball Germany could play into the penalty area much easier. Example 1: Northern Ireland lost the ball and runs slowly back to their defensive organization. However, this movement is not fast enough in all parts of the team. The Northern Irish focused only on the player in possession and forget about Gomez in their back — which ultimately gives.

Example 2 : Ahead of the , there is a long ball played from the Northern Irish. The ball is headed back and reconquered by a Northern Irish player who plays a pass which is intercepted by Kimmich. This short back and forth is enough for a complete disorder in the defense of Northern Ireland and enables a 4 on 2 situation. The fact that even in the game there is still potential shows the following scene: If a team that normally defends in a low block shows some attacking pressing in some situations, the team in possession should capitalize on that by simply playing a long ball to the running striker.

In this scene Kroos chooses a ground-pass to Gomez instead of a long ball into his running path — not just the ball is lost, but with a good chance to score. In the second half Germany pushed Northern Ireland much deeper in some situations — which gave Germany different solutions in their attack. Example: Northern Ireland is fully decremented in the area and actually expected a cross from Hector. Conclusion : In the end Northern Ireland invited Germany to use the space they gave up.

For Germany we hope that they can display the same organization and movement without the ball against better opponents. Against better opponents one thing is for sure: they will not get as many chances, so they better make them. Learn more about German Counterpressing Gegenpressing in this Article!

Organization : According to illustration. The starting player dribbles towards the dummy and player A releases in an arch-sharped run from the second dummy and is passed to. Coaching : The focus lays on the correct timing of releasing and offering as well as the technical execution. Variation 1: While player A starts an initial dribbling, B releases sideways into a half-open position. The pass is played with th e left and received with the right one and forwarded with two touches with the left foot.

Change of positions after 5 10,15 combinations. Author : Steven Turek Goals : Lukaku After a complicated opener in the first game against Italy and a moderate first half against Ireland Belgium ultimately wins clearly with as Lukaku scores twice. As in the first group match against the much stronger Italians the favorites Belgium presented itself bad in attacks out of clear possession.

Again, they presented with no real solution to a compact defending opponent. Example 1: Belgium has the ball in the center and plays from one side to another. Throughout the sequence, Lukaku does not open up a single time. Here in this still image he hides even downright behind the Irish central defender. This makes it extremely difficult to find areas in the low-lying defense. Lf Lukaku regularly opens up, he can be played at, can block a defender for a passing lane to himself or at least be dangerous in order to be respected by the defending team so that they have to close that passing lanes which opens up other spaces.

What did not work in possession should fold in transition. In counterattack situations especially the individual skills of De Bruyne are dangerous. However, not without the help of the defense of Ireland.

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Example 1: A corner the ball is cleared and flies toward Lukaku. Already at that moment Ireland has serious problems. The center of the Irish did not mark De Bruyne. What follows is a presentation of quality by the Belgian superstar and the 3: 0 by Lukaku. The Belgium consistently trying to achieve goals through their transition game, displays itself in their fundamental organization at opposing corners. In corners of the Irish all ten outfield players position themselves in the penalty area — De Bruyne on edge of the box. In the event that the goalkeeper catches the ball De Bruyne and Hazard find open spaces that can be used.

And despite this focus on counterattacks Belgium, except De Bruyne and Hazard, miss, to use openings in the opposing defense consistently. Example 1: The ball is by a player in the center yellow. Instead of running towards the gaps in the opposing defense and thus perform an action that requires a response of the Irish, two Belgians run together on the same level and hope for a quick pass.

Example 2: De Bruyne in the center receive the ball and is not under pressure. Instead of running in the gap in the defense Dembele red decides to just stay! The right defender Meunier runs far too wide. Afterwards, he is passed to by De Bruyne, but is too far out for a dangerous shot on goal. That Belgium ultimately still managed a goal against a set opponent organization was mainly because of the lack of intensity and wrong decision making by the Irish players.

Example: Hazard has the ball. Belgium has not occupied a vertical passing option. There is no reason for Ward Irish left-back not to defend wider. This safety distance he holds a long. The ball is put back to the penalty area and also no pressure is put on the player in possession. Axel Witsel scored after the cross and decides the game. Conclusion: Ultimately, gave Ireland Belgium the spaces they needed. So Belgium was able to show its brutal counterattack quality.

For the remainder of the tournament, the question is whether Belgium can score against teams with better insurance defense for example Germany. Author: Steven Turek Goals: Morata An offensive is good when the opponent is not able to solve it. An offensive is great when you great a problem for the opponent where every solution opens up another problem. Spain does exactly that. They create situations in which each defensive reaction reveals a space which is then used. Example 1: David Silva gets the ball due to a counterpressing situation near the box. Actually, Turkey already has great problem.

His direct opponent is too far away and must prevent a possible cross to Morata or shoot at the goal sprinting maximum speed. In addition, Silva has a short passing option to further continue the attack in the penalty area. Ultimately, Silva uses the movement of the defender for a short counter movement and dribbles himself into the box.

Example 2: The ball is again near the box — with more Turkish players being behind the ball, Spain has enough options. Firstly, Morata always offers the possibility to play a cross ball of in this scene leads to the goal. Secondly, passing options are around the box. If David Silva as an example in possession Turkey must prevent a direct shoot or dribbling, which in turn would open passing lanes into the penalty area.

Another quality that Spain is executes almost to perfection is to recognize and use the smallest spaces. With this movement, the opponent can be overplayed directly or he is forced to adjust its position, which in turn will open other spaces. Example 1: Pique has dribbled the ball up in the right half-space. Juanfran recognizes the space the Turkish left-back revealed. The situation on the ball Pique is open and is not under pressure allows a direct pass and is therefore realistic — that would force the defender to adjust his position.

Instead he does not do it, and only one shoe length offside prevents a great chance to score. Example 2: Iniesta has the ball in the center and is not under direct pressure which is basically already a problem in itself — see last paragraph. Nolito plays between the lines and thus pulls an opponent from away from the defensive line. Alba recognizes the space at the penalty area and runs in it.

What follows is an incredible pass by Iniesta with the following 3: 0. Speaking of Iniesta. Nobody embodies the Spanish game as good as Iniesta. He is the manifestation of the best solution in every situation. Regardless of its almost magical skills at dribbling and passing game you never feel there would be a better solution to the current situation, than the one Iniesta finds. Good for Spain, he presents in time for the European Championship in absolute world class form. Conclusion: If anyone forgot about Spain ahead of the tournament they were reminded of what Spain is capable of.

The game started for Germany basically like the game against the Ukraine — high dominance in possession, easy over playing of the first opposing line although that was not really hard and convincing counterpressing. What Germany should however be missing the whole game was the offensive punch. This was partly due to the fundamental stable defensive Poland but also many smaller individual errors.

These included detailed mistakes in passing and running lanes, as well as lacking individual quality at the right moment. Instead of dribbling in the open space to apply pressure, he makes a bad pass to Mueller, who has a worse position to the goal and is provided at the moment he controls the ball by a second defender. Example 2: Draxler after a cross gets a clear 1-on-1 situation. Germany missing out on these quality possessions was partly due to the good behavior of the defense of Poland, but also on that day lack of individual quality the ball ends up out of bounds.

For all mechanisms that Germany could create in that game, should not be forgotten that these mechanisms are always due to the alignment of the opponent. Poland focused basically on low block defending. The consequence of such a deep organization with all field players except one allows a relatively easy counterpressing, because after the ball is won first passing options have to be created.

Lewandowski came into this game with a special role: he marked one of the two central defenders mainly Boateng closely to prevent passes from and to that player — and had thus already fulfilled his defensive duties. Example: L ewandowski is based on Boateng and prevents passes. This favored Germany over dominance in the first third, since the remaining Milik could easily be over played with Kroos and Khedira.

Dangerous was Poland in transition after ball gains higher in the field and in set plays. Showed the EURO previously exciting last minutes and late goals, this game was the exception. Conclusion : Germany persuaded, as in the first game, with the fundamental tactical orientation — but missed solutions in the final third. Poland showed a stable defensive, situationally correct decisions in switching to other pressing lines and individual qualities — also without being able to score.

From the outset, showed France similar problems as in the first game. Already there they concentrated too heavily on securing their own possession without really trying to overplay any players. Already from the formations of France and Albania there was a majority of France players in the build-up. As if this were not enough, however, players like Coman and Martial often oriented towards the ball. It ended in strange situations in which nearly ten blue players faced ten white players. Instead of these movements to the ball and away from their opponents, the reverse would have been necessary in order to really build up pressure on the opponent in possession.