For all their variety, the way most systems of higher education have developed harks back to what may be seen as four referential and historical models of the university: the Napoleonic model France , the Humboldtian Germany , the "market-driven" model the United States and the model of higher education equated with the United Kingdom. Until recently, the so-called "Soviet model" and its derivatives from a command economy might well have figured amongst the ranks of these "system shaping" models.
The Napoleonic model is one of the earliest examples of the state harnessing the university to the modernization of society. It did this by maintaining close control over financing, over academic appointments and the use of legal instruments to ensure that national provision was similar across the national territory. In its classic form, the "Napoleonic" university is a powerful lever in asserting a singular national identity, based on the principles of formal equality and merit which are themselves both defined and upheld by a powerful national administration.
In addition to France, this pattern ranged over such countries as Spain and Italy, and is also to be seen in Argentina and many of the French-speaking African nations. The Humboldtian model of university, so called after Wilhelm von Humboldt, a radical reformer of the Prussian higher education system in the early 19th century, is often seen as being at the origins of the present-day "research university" committed to "advancing the frontiers of knowledge".
Humboldt attached special importance to the freedom of senior members of the university to pursue enquiry without interference from government. An unknown error has occurred. Maynard Smith, J. Palaeontology at the high table. Nature Mayr, E. Provine, The Evolutionary Synthesis. Perspectives on the unification of Biology.
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Meisch, C. Contribution to the taxonomy of Pseudocandona and four related genera, with the description of Schellencandona nov. Crustacea, Ostracoda. Moguilevsky, A. Cytogenetic studies on marine mydocopid Ostracoda: the karyotypes of some species of halocyprids. Neale, J. Oertli, H.
Centre Rech. Pianka, E. Evolutionary Ecology, 5th edn. Harper Collins College Publ.
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Schulze, E. Mooney eds , Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning. Springer Verlag, Berlin: pp. Smith, R. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ.
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Leicester: i-v, Swain, F. Lundin eds , Biology and Paleobiology of Ostracoda. Les garnitures chromosomiques des Ostracodes d'eau douce. Grenoble Whatley, R. SMF 2. October 03, , PM by nehavermaa.
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