Guide Lesson Plans Wartime: Understanding and Behavior in the Second World War

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This lesson will show the relationships of the angles of parallel lines and transversals. When we hear the words Civil Rights Movement, we have visions of Dr. Martin Luther King and a few others. Through pictures, students will identify ordinary leaders in the crowd. Students will have the opportunity to analyze those pictures by doing a picture walk. Students will learn more about some of the people in the crowd, and how they made a difference in our beloved community.

This lesson will enhance mathematical vocabulary knowledge and reinforce basic skills for solving equations. Mathematical vocabulary is a vital part of this lesson. The lesson will challenge the minds of seventh-grade students with the theory of angles. The student will use the information in the diagram to write an equation and solve for the variable. Terms that will be identified in the lesson are as follows: supplementary, complementary, adjacent, parallel lines and transversal, and vertical angles.

This lesson provides a review of evaluating functions and finding function rules as well as an introduction to the composition of functions. The review is accomplished through the use of an online exploration using a function machine. The idea of a function machine is also used to explain the composition of functions. Students will use a Venn diagram to compare lightning and static electricity.

Then, students will experiment with static electricity and read nonfiction passages about lightning and lightning rods. This lesson will provide an introduction to finding the inverse of a function or a relation. Through a combination of teacher-led instruction and collaboration, students will discover a method for finding the inverse of a function or relation. The use of an online graphing calculator will aid students with their discovery. During this lesson, students will research the social, political, and economic impact of the Great Depression on the lives of Alabamians.

Students will collaborate to create a presentation from the project-based learning activity and present it to the class. The lesson will begin with the teacher leading a discussion related to animal traits and the environment using a T-chart graphic organizer. Then, students will research a different animal to determine how its traits can be influenced by its environment using digital or print sources and take brief notes. Lastly, students will develop an explanatory text in a claim-evidence-reasoning format that includes an illustration to help convey their scientific ideas clearly.

Students will work in collaborative groups to analyze and interpret research information from their previous reading assignment on the social, political, and economic impact of the Great Depression on the lives of Alabamians. Finally, students will present their expository essay to the class.

At the conclusion of the lesson, students will use their experiences as evidence to explain that light is essential for sight. Students will be given the task to build a dam that will stand against water. Students will design and build a scaled model of a dam and test the model for the ability to reduce the impact of a flood. Students will evaluate the efficacy of the dam they constructed and built.

Students will contemplate what actions can be taken and materials that could be used in order to create a more effective dam in the future. In this lesson, students will research a variety of animals, plants, and habitats from Alabama. After creating the habitat in small groups, the small groups of students will share their habitat with their classmates. In Math, students will draw a t-chart to represent dam and flood data obtained from their reading resource. Students will select the information they wish to use from the reading resource their opinions.

Students will then use rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch to measure lengths and construct a scale model of their own dam, which they can later construct in Science. Students will represent data in a graph and use measurement data by measuring lengths using rulers marked with halves and fourths of an inch. Students will test their scale dams and make changes as needed. This lesson will begin with students reviewing the steps of the scientific method, then applying the steps of the scientific method using an online interactive game. Next, students will utilize the steps of the scientific method to explore factors that caused the population of the peppered moth to change over time.

The students will conduct an experiment to gather data regarding the factors that led to a population shift in the peppered moth species. Then, students will read an article about the history of the peppered moth and play an online interactive game to further explore the factors that led to a change in this species's population. Lastly, students will develop a writing piece that includes a claim related to the change in the peppered moth's population and evidence that was gathered from the experiment, reading, and online activity.

In this lesson, the teacher will demonstrate how to use the Pythagorean Theorem to find distance between two points in the coordinate system. In the coordinate plane, the difference in the x- and y-values will determine the numbers to calculate the distance. This lesson will use online graphing tools as well as graph paper to plot the points.

This lesson can also be used to show the relationship between the distance formula and the Pythagorean Theorem. This lesson will begin with students brainstorming methods of communication using a web graphic organizer. Next, students will collaborate with a partner to create a basic cup phone set. Then, the teacher will lead students to develop a revised cup phone set using a variety of different materials. Lastly, the students will design and construct a revised version of the cup phone and test its effectiveness as compared to the first cup phone set.

Then, the teacher will introduce the three methods of heat transfer radiation, conduction, and convection utilizing an online video clip, and the students will take jot notes while viewing the video clip. Next, the students will perform an experiment to investigate radiation as a form of heat transfer by recording how the temperature of ice changes when exposed to an energy source solar energy or heat energy from a clamp lamp. Then, students will perform an experiment to investigate convection as a form of heat transfer using blue dyed ice cubes and warmed red food coloring, to create a convection cycle within a container filled with room-temperature water.

Students will design an experiment to relate the voltage difference and current in a circuit. They will collect data, then create and analyze a graph in order to arrive at Ohm's Law. They will create circuits and determine the voltage difference, current, and resistance in the circuit using Ohm's Law. This lesson will utilize the talking drawings strategy, in which students will begin the lesson by drawing a picture of a plant to illustrate how they think plants make their own food.

Then, the teacher will introduce the process of photosynthesis using an interactive presentation to explain photosynthesis in a pictorial format. As the teacher describes the process, the students will create a scientifically accurate drawing of a plant engaging in photosynthesis. Lastly, students will create a writing piece that will describe the process of photosynthesis and construct a scientifically accurate illustration of the process of photosynthesis. The lesson will begin with students comparing and contrasting the physical properties of ice and water using a Venn diagram graphic organizer.

Next, the students will describe the physical properties of ingredients needed for a microwave mug cake. The students will bake a chocolate microwave mug cake to demonstrate that some changes in matter caused by heating and cooling are irreversible. Lastly, the students will create a written and pictorial response comparing the water and ice to the microwave mug cake to provide evidence that some changes in matter can be reversed, while others can not.

This lesson will provide information that will prove the concept of sine and cosine is equal to the complementary angles of a right triangle.


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The lesson will examine the proper techniques for writing trigonometric ratios. The lesson will enhance background knowledge of proportions as well as use the terminology of means and extremes. In this lesson, students will define conflict as it relates to Native American land conflict during the early nineteenth century. Students will read a description of the pine barrens by Basil Hall and analyze the text by using the strategy. Students will discuss the life and work of Basil Hall, including his travels and journaling in North America. They will observe how a camera lucida functions and debate whether using a camera lucida is "cheating" in art.

Next, students will venture outside to create a sketch of their environment while appropriately utilizing materials. They will compare and contrast their products to the sketches of Basil Hall and critique each other's work. In this lesson, students will define archaeology. Students will compare and contrast two artifacts looking for clues from the past. Students will write a narrative story of an artifact. This lesson introduces students to the world of primary sources.

Students will analyze two photographs concerning Alabama's second governor, Thomas Bibb, in order to construct meaning. Students will analyze a primary source from their past and present it to the class. Through this lesson, students will explore primary sources related to the buying and selling of human beings for the purpose of slavery.

This lesson looks at the natural resources that drew settlers to Alabama. Students will explore the letter from Joseph Noble to his friend, Samuel B. Students will explain ideas within this historical text based on specific information presented in this primary source. During this lesson, students will recount a Paul Bunyan tall tale, an entertaining way to identify bodies of water and landforms in the United States.

The disruption would be solved through negotiation. The negotiating Creek Indians did not obtain full restoration of their land, however, they did accept a compromise. Students will explore two NCSS Notable Trade Books and a newspaper advertisement to develop an understanding of what life was like for slaves in the nineteenth century. Students will use their understanding to write a narrative story about being a slave in the nineteenth century.

This lesson looks at the natural resources that drew businesses to Alabama. Students will explore an article about education in the early nineteenth century and a newspaper article from to determine what education was like in the early nineteenth century. Students will investigate the documents and find text evidence to find out what schools were like in the early nineteenth century. Students will use their findings to write a story. Students will compare and contrast steamboats, wagons, and stagecoaches as different modes of transportation for goods as well as people.

Students will create a steamboat advertisement to illustrate the importance of the invention of the steamboat in Alabama. Students will analyze a primary document and read a secondary source about the Marquis de Lafayette's Grand Tour of the United States in The Marquis and his entourage toured lower Alabama for a few days in April. Students will create an annotated timeline detailing his days and the events that occurred in Alabama as the country prepared to celebrate America's 50th birthday.

Students will use primary sources to gain information about Hernando de Soto, his route, and his interactions with Native Americans in Alabama. Students will read two articles in order to identify information about Hernando de Soto and his journey through Alabama. Students will also learn about the impact of European Exploration on the Native Americans who were in Alabama in the s. In this lesson, students will learn about the executive branch of government at the state level, especially related to the first governors of the state of Alabama. Their impact on the development of Alabama and Alabama's role in the United States will be discussed.

Students will use research and note taking skills to gather information on an early governor. Then students will participate in jigsaw groups to share their information, discuss the importance of each governor, similarities, and impact. Finally, students will discuss the role of governor and how governors have an impact on the state and the impact these men had in Alabama and in other states. In this lesson, students will be able to describe cultural aspects of early nineteenth century townspeople by reading a newspaper article describing the opening of a new school.

This lesson will provide students with two primary documents, a drawing of a postal stagecoach and a newspaper article outlining the difficulties of mail delivery. Students will complete a graphic organizer to provide evidence that details a specific perspective described in the documents. Students will examine the cultural and economic aspects of the early nineteenth century and will refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences. Students will be able to explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points of view.

Students will choose an interesting attraction of Alabama mentioned in the letter and design a postage stamp around that attraction. Students will include details from the secondary source, as well as the primary document, to include on the invitation. The event will be explained utilizing the format of the invitation. In the Constitutional Convention met in Huntsville, Alabama in order to write our state's constitution. In this lesson, students will learn what a preamble is, as well as, read both the United States' Preamble to the Constitution and the preamble to Alabama's Constitution.

Students will examine similarities between both preambles and discuss possible reasons for such similarities. Fifth-grade teachers could also utilize this lesson to examine and compare both preambles and their purposes. Students will create a Google Doc utilizing their school based account or the class created account provided by the teacher. Students will electronically journal their thinking throughout the process of the hands-on group science activity about designing and evaluating a dam to reduce the impact of a flood.

Students will compile journal entries to create a sequential writing appropriate to the task. Students will then create a presentation of their journaling with Google Slides, Prezi, Animoto or a similar electronic presentation tool. In this lesson, students will explore and construct forest habitats of plants and animals native to Alabama. In the beginning, students will activate their prior knowledge by reviewing the definition of a habitat and discussing what they know about forests to create a KWL chart.

The students will demonstrate their learning through animal sorts, habitat construction, and informational writing using the conventions of Standard English such as capitalization and punctuation. For the conclusion, the students will peer edit their writing using the provided writing anchor chart before presenting their learning to others. Students will interpret various primary sources for reconstructing the past, including documents and photographs about dam designs.

Students will gain skills necessary for researching by locating credible and original sources, determining if the sources are primary or secondary. Students will discuss the definition of cause and effect, and the teacher will explicitly explain the definition of cause and effect as well as introduce keywords used in determining cause and effect.

Students will be introduced to an informational text about dams. The teacher will model determining a cause and effect relationship found in the text. Next, the students will practice determining cause and effect in the same text. Students will use a cause and effect graphic organizer to identify cause and effect relationships within the informational text. Pictures of Alabama State Capitols are provided in this lesson to give students the opportunity to research information that could help them to give their point of view.

It will be up to the students to provide further information about the pictures. This will start a conversation about the best location for a capital city and its capitol building. The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of weather and climates by completing a warm-up writing prompt. Students will then move to reading texts on the subjects of tornadoes, hurricanes, earthquakes, and droughts to determine if and how climate affects these weather phenomena. In groups, students will create a half-poster that describes their findings in text and pictures. At the end of the lesson, students will view a graph to extend their learning about tornadoes and hint at a future lesson while also completing an "exit ticket" as a means of summative assessment.

The lesson will begin with a brief review of the previous lesson on how climates and geographic locations can affect weather patterns and produce natural disasters.


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  • Students will watch a short video during the before strategy to engage learners in the lesson on a particular natural disaster--tornadoes. Students will read various texts and charts in order to understand the causes and effects of tornadoes, putting the information in a T-chart to help organize their thoughts. Students will then discuss their findings with an elbow partner and then write a two-paragraph cause and effect essay which will serve as the summative assessment.

    The lesson will focus on observing and creating timelines. Teacher will show students example timelines. Students will state things that they notice from the sample timelines.

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    Finally, students will break into groups and work to create a timeline with other American Symbols books. This lesson will focus on creating timelines. Students will use important dates from their lives to create a personal 5 event timeline. Students will use rulers to measure equal spaces for their timelines. This lesson will require two 1 hour sessions. The first lesson will include the lesson introduction, work on timelines and time for formative assessments as students work.

    The second session will be used to complete timelines, share projects, and complete exit tickets. The lesson will focus on ordering common events by times, days, months, steps, or events.

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    Students will work collaboratively in groups to organize five child-focused events, steps, or times. These titles, events, steps, days, and times will be cut apart so that students need to organize them into a logical sequence. Groups will rotate through the five events to practice daily schedules, holidays, school schedules, weekly events, and procedural texts. Groups may take a picture of completed events as a digital copy or the teacher may check each group for formative assessment. The lesson will focus on creating a timeline. The teacher and students will work together to collect data from teachers around the school.

    Using this data, students will work to complete a class timeline and formulate questions to ask others about their completed timeline. This lesson will require four minute sessions to complete. In this lesson, the solutions to lessen the human impact on the environment will be explored. Students will communicate their plan during journal writing by producing an informational writing piece that uses the conventions of Standard English such as capitalization and punctuation.

    At the end of the lesson, the students will peer edit their writing using the provided writing anchor chart. In this lesson, students will explore solutions that would lessen the human impact on the environment. After reading The Lorax, students will discuss ways they can help their environment through the 3R's reduce, reuse, recycle.

    Students will create a reduce, reuse, recycle chart from their discussion. Students will use a pros and cons graphic organizer as they read articles on three different types of tornado shelters: underground shelters, part of the house shelters, and prebuilt shelters. The students will find the advantages and disadvantages of each type of structure. At the end of the lesson, the teacher will create a table that lists all the shelters and the pros and cons of each.

    In this lesson, students will participate in creating a recycle drive for a classroom project. Students will create the notification for parents for the recycle drive to help collect items to be recycled. Students will decide by voting on which items they will recycle.

    Students will bring recyclable items to the classroom for the project. Recyclable materials will be sorted, weighed, and graphed to compare the different items. This lesson will culminate the lessons on recycling that have been previously taught. Students will work collaboratively in groups to discuss texts and factual information they have learned from previous lessons taught on recycling. The students will make a poster or brochure to share with the class. The shared portion of the lesson will be videoed so that the students can share with parents, other family members, and the local city council members.

    This is a third-grade math lesson on the topic of tornadoes and natural disasters. Students will enter data from an internet search on the number of tornadoes occurring in each state into a spreadsheet. In this lesson, students will conduct an experiment to compare similarities and differences with wind and water erosion. Students will create a narrative story describing a particular rock formation based on evidence in the rock patterns, including an estimated time frame, plants and animals that may have been living in the environment, and the type of erosion that formed their rock formation.

    The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of the anatomical similarities and differences among modern and fossil organisms by creating a Venn diagram with a partner, which will compare and contrast two organisms. Next, students will complete the online modules found at "What did T.

    Students will use a cladogram to infer how a T. Lastly, students will construct a written explanation to describe the anatomical similarities and differences between the T. Students will create a model of the Earth's layers and present this model to their classmates, explaining the role of thermal convection in the movement of Earth's materials. The lesson will begin by students accessing their prior knowledge of fossils and the fossil record by creating a "chain letter" with their classmates. Next, students will participate in an introductory WebQuest which will explain how the anatomical structure of the whale has changed over time.

    With a collaborative group, students will create a timeline of the Eocene epoch that will depict the chronological order of whale fossil appearance in rock layers. Using the jigsaw strategy, students will read an informational text pertaining to the change in the anatomical structures of the whale over time and complete a data table. Lastly, students will complete an exit slip, which will serve as the summative assessment for the lesson's objectives.

    Students will begin this lesson by ordering the events of their morning using relative and absolute dating techniques. Next, students will work with collaborative groups to order events in Earth's geologic history by relative age, then order those same events by absolute age in a scaled model timeline. Lastly, students will use the time-scale model created with their group members to analyze events in Earth's geologic history.

    Students will begin the lesson by matching pictures of animal parents and offspring, then the teacher will allow students to describe how they were able to create matches. Lastly, the students will create an illustration of a new animal using a "Trait Table" that includes characteristics of both parent animals.

    At the conclusion of the lesson, the students should be able to identify similarities and differences between offspring and their parents and other members of the same species. Students will begin by brainstorming a list of needs that must be met for an animal to survive in its habitat. Next, the students will observe an ant farm, created by the teacher prior to the lesson, and determine how the ants' needs are being met through their environment.

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    Then, students will create a list of needs that must be met for a plant to survive in its habitat and compare this list to animals' survival needs. Lastly, the teacher will assist students in developing a plan to build a natural habitat conducive to meeting the needs of a plant. At the conclusion of the lesson, the students will construct a plant terrarium. This lesson will require students to research the three tenets of cell theory and describe the scientific evidence that supports this theory.

    After students complete their research, they will engage in all steps of the writing process, including prewriting, outlining, revising, and editing. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a three-paragraph argumentative essay to examine the cell theory and the scientific evidence that supports this theory. Students will begin the lesson by viewing a video clip that will explain the difference between classical and transgenic breeding of plants.

    Next, students will work in groups to identify common foods that contain genetically-modified organisms GMOs. Students will further explore this concept by gathering and synthesizing information regarding the impact of genetically modified organisms on the appearance of desired traits in organisms. Lastly, students will engage in the "RAFT" writing strategy, by taking on the role of a farmer persuading their employees to consider the positive or negative impacts of genetically-modified food crops.

    At the beginning of the lesson, students will view an engaging video of time-lapse photographs of flowers blooming, and students will create a T-chart listing the similarities and differences among the appearances of each flower. To formatively assess students' current knowledge of specialized plant structures, the students will sort key vocabulary words related to plants' structures into categories. Then, students will read an informational article on flowering plants and re-sort the key vocabulary words into the correct categories to demonstrate their knowledge of plants' specialized reproductive structures.

    Next, students will complete a lab activity in which they will carefully dissect a flower and observe the various specialized structures, collect specimens to view under the microscope and create and label scientific sketches of the flower's specialized structures. Lastly, students will design a unique flower that will have a high probability of reproductive success and provide a written response in a claim-evidence-reasoning format. Students will begin this inquiry-based lesson by accessing their prior knowledge about the distinguishing characteristics of different substances.

    Using ideas from the students, the teacher will create a list of physical and chemical properties that can be used to recognize different substances. Next, the teacher will assist the students in planning an investigation that will test methods to determine the identity of substances based on their characteristic properties. Lastly, students will carry out the investigation they planned with the aim of identifying "mystery" substances using their unique physical and chemical properties. Students will begin by describing how humans change their environment in order to provide for their needs.

    Students will watch a video clip that explains how several forest animals alter their habitats, and then explain how other animals might change their environment in order to survive. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a drawing that illustrates how an animal may alter their environment to provide for its needs. Students will begin by brainstorming a list of ways that organisms may interact within an ecosystem.

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    Then students will have an opportunity to share their list with a peer and with the class. Next, students will create a jot chart that will detail the five relationships that may exist between organisms in an ecosystem: competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will examine food webs and predict the patterns of interactions that may exist between and among organisms in an ecosystem.

    The lesson will begin by engaging students with a video of a natural landform in Alabama called Neversink Pit. Students will then research the natural and human-made causes and effects of sinkhole formation in Alabama. Lastly, students will create a video PSA to communicate information about sinkhole dangers and methods to protect people and property from sinkhole damage.

    This lesson will begin by introducing students to the impact of the interaction of the hydrologic and rock cycles on Earth's materials. Students will categorize the mechanical and chemical impacts of the hydrologic cycle on Earth's lithosphere using a jot chart. Students will participate in an outdoor geologic field study to locate examples of mechanical and chemical effects of the hydrologic cycle on their school's grounds. Lastly, students will analyze and interpret the data gathered during the geologic field study through the creation of a bar and circle graph.

    This lesson will require students to research the Big Bang Theory and the three main pieces of scientific evidence that support this theory. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will create a five paragraph argumentative essay to examine the Big Bang Theory and the scientific evidence that supports this theory. This is a lesson presenting energy and work. It covers: types of energy, forms of energy, work, law of conservation of energy, and renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.

    In the activities section, one will find links to Internet sites that explore concepts of energy and work. Interactive labs are also included in this lesson. The lesson can serve as a student-led or teacher-led lesson. It gives a brief statement of facts; therefore, the teacher must provide expansions, if needed. The expansions could come from the Internet sites since many of them go into more detail about the concepts.

    The teacher will also be expected to supply some form of assessment for the lesson. Students know that humans and other animals must eat food to have the energy to grow, maintain body temperature, heal, and move, but do they realize that all the energy in food was once energy from the sun? In this lesson, students will participate in a simulation regarding the transfer of energy from the sun to plants, the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy during photosynthesis, and the transfer of energy between organisms when one organism eats another.

    Then they will use websites, close reading of nonfiction passages, and vocabulary-building activities to prepare them to construct their own models of the transfer of energy in a food chain to show that energy in animals' food was once energy from the sun. Young students may think the sun is the biggest and brightest star in the universe since it appears to be the brightest star in the sky when viewed from Earth.

    In this lesson, students will use flashlights to construct a model of the difference in stars' appearances due to their distance from Earth. Then they will use the Internet to research the sun and stars to create a poster, picture book, or digital presentation to explain that the sun is not the biggest or brightest star--it only appears that way due to its proximity to Earth.

    It can stand on its own but if you haven't taught the others you may want to show the World Population Over Time video before starting this lesson. In this lesson, students investigate photosynthesis through hands-on experiments, videos, and discussion of text. They work in small groups with picture cards to create a chart showing how plants transform carbon dioxide, water, and light energy into carbohydrates and oxygen. After working collaboratively, students will create their own diagrams of photosynthesis.

    Because plant observations must occur over time, this lesson will take several days to complete. In this activity, the students will be engineers who compete to create their own "safe" and fast free fall ride. Using graphing and calculations, the students will calculate the fastest ride and determine the minimum and maximum passenger sizes that their ride will hold. The team that designs the fastest ride that doesn't "hurt" the passenger s wins!

    The students will work together to design a magnetic system that can float from one point to another. The students will design a graphic organizer showing the sequence and steps needed to design a Maglev Train system by applying a scientific understanding of the forces between interacting magnets. Students will work in small groups to conduct a hands-on investigation to see what materials allow light to pass through. They will label materials as opaque, translucent, and transparent.

    They will operate solar panels and place different materials between the sun and the panel. The panel is attached to a fan which will stop, continue spinning or slow down depending on the material. Learners will record their findings in chart form. In this activity, students try to work their way out of a circular maze, thereby modeling the movement of a photon as it travels through the radiative zone of the sun.

    Classroom discussion after they complete the activity is focused on the Standard Solar Model and its importance in further scientific studies of the sun. Students investigate the properties of gasses using the gas laws and explore the application to aeronautics. In this lesson, students construct balloon-powered rockets to launch the greatest payload possible to the classroom ceiling. Student teams receive identical parts to build rockets. Then the teams compete to launch the greatest number of paper clips to space the ceiling. Virginia Davis and Chris Schnittka. This lesson is about compounds, mixtures, and solutions and relating those to synthetics, with the focus being plastics.

    This lesson focuses on how plastics are made and the negative impacts of some plastics. It goes on to explain how the addition of nanoscale particles can be the solution for these problems. This lesson includes a lecture and a hands-on activity where the students are creating plastic from the milk protein casein. This is an inquiry-based lesson that allows the students to investigate how an animal's color affects its chances of survival in its environment. Students will explore evidence needed to explain the cause-and-effect relationship between an animal's coloring and its effect on the individual's ability to survive.

    The students will create a communication device using everyday resources. Students will analyze the bond energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Students will develop a model to illustrate how the changes in total bond energy determine whether the reaction is endothermic or exothermic. This is one of three lessons that can be taught alone, or as the second part of a series, "Solutions from Nature. They choose from different materials to construct a house that is sturdy like the stem and has a foundation like the roots.

    Students will use weather data to construct charts and graphs of temperatures in their city in different seasons. Then they will use this data as evidence to determine which temperatures are typical for each season. Finally, they will research average seasonal temperatures for another U. Students will justify their explanations based on temperature data and the desired vacation activities. This inquiry-based lesson allows students to explore how our bodies use our voluntary and involuntary nervous systems to make our bodies function. Students will complete a data table using authentic tide predictions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

    Next, students will use their data table to create a line graph that will show the relationship between the tidal range and moon phases. Lastly, students will analyze their graph to explain how the occurrence of ocean tides is related to the moon's phases. First, students will view an engaging video about the recent arrival of the New Horizons spacecraft at Pluto.

    Students will create a sketch of the solar system to show their current understanding of the relative sizes and distances of the objects in our solar system. Students will then scale the diameters of the Sun, eight main planets, and Pluto, as well as the planets' distances from the sun. Students will be required to utilize mathematical skills, such as division, rounding, and metric system conversions.

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    After scaling the diameters and orbits of the objects in our solar system, students will create a scaled model of the solar system using a roll of toilet paper. Students will create a digital form of steganography with their group. The students will observe the weather over a five-day period. After observing the local weather, the students will record their observations. The students will use their five senses to observe and record the local weather. How does light affect sight?

    In this lesson, students will observe how light reflects off objects and into the eye so we can see. They will learn how the pupil controls the amount of light entering the eye, how we perceive color by sensing different wavelengths of light, and why objects look different in bright and dim light. Matter is made of particles too small to be seen. In this lesson, students will plan and carry out investigations with air and simple solutions to provide evidence that all types of matter are made of tiny particles that are invisible to the human eye.

    How can a tree grow in the middle of a field if no one planted it there? In this lesson, students will work to find out the answer to this question by learning how seeds are dispersed. Students will observe different types of seeds and see how they sometimes "hitch a ride" in or on animals to travel great distances.

    Finally, they will use the engineering design process to make models of animals that help disperse seeds. Students will begin this inquiry-based lesson by accessing their prior knowledge of the positive and negative effects of the sun's energy. Students will be introduced to the concept of space weather, including cosmic radiation and coronal mass ejections, by watching a video clip from the National Science Foundation.

    Students will use a dipole bar magnet and iron filings to develop a model of Earth's magnetic field.

    Students will apply their experience from this inquiry to explain how Earth's magnetic field can protect us from space weather. Students will begin this inquiry-based activity by predicting how the continents of Earth could move over time. Next, students will complete a lab activity in collaborative groups, in which they will create a model showing how Earth's internal heat energy can create convection currents that result in plate movements.

    Lastly, students will use their model to explain how Earth's tectonic plates move over millions of years. Students will begin this lesson by accessing their prior knowledge on Earth's natural resources through a brainstorming activity. The teacher will introduce the topic of fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources such as coal, oil, and natural gas.

    This lesson will culminate with students creating a presentation in the form of a research paper, poster, or slideshow to demonstrate their knowledge of the distribution and creation of fossil fuels. This is an inquiry-based lesson that allows students to investigate how vibrations of matter can create sound and that sound can make matter vibrate. This is an inquiry-based lesson that allows the students to create a string telephone to investigate how sound can be used to communicate over a given distance.

    This lesson will demonstrate why blood transfusions are possible between certain types of blood. ABO blood types will be reviewed and students will determine which blood types are the universal donor and recipient. In this lesson, students will examine electronegativities of atoms relative to one another to determine if a covalent bond will be classified as polar or nonpolar. Students will use an online simulation to help them understand the importance of lone pairs of electrons as well as bonding pairs of electrons.

    Students will use ball-and-stick models to examine and identify the shapes of various molecules. After researching the formation of each type of rock, students use the evidence from knowledge of the rock cycle to write a story about a pet rock. Students will present their pet rock story to the class. Matter is not created nor destroyed; it simply changes from one form to another. In this lesson, students will challenge their preconceptions about matter by experimenting with physical and chemical changes to determine that the total weight of the matter does not change.

    Students will use math to show that the total weight of matter is equal to the sum of the weight of its component parts, and they will graph this information to show that the weight of matter is conserved during physical and chemical changes. The majority of Earth's surface is covered by water, but only a small percentage of this water is freshwater. In this lesson, students will learn where saltwater and freshwater are found. Then they will use models to show the distribution of different types of water in different reservoirs and depict this information using bar graphs and pie charts.

    Finally, they will use their data as evidence to support the idea that freshwater should be conserved. Codes are used to transmit messages. We may use codes to keep our messages secret from people who do not know the code, or we may use them to change one type of information into another. The key to decoding a message is knowing the rule to crack the code. In this lesson, students will explore different types of codes, create coded messages, and apply rules to decode messages.

    This lesson provides the background needed for students to then develop their own method for transferring information. Waste disposal is a problem for the entire Earth and must be dealt with in a responsible manner to maintain biodiversity in ecosystems. After investigating the amount of waste they produce as an individual, family, class, school, community, and society, students investigate how items decompose in a landfill and develop arguments to support a solution to the problem.

    Students engage in argument to defend the effectiveness of a design solution on a proposed method of disposing of waste in their school and community. Magnets are fun to play with, but how can we use magnets to improve our lives? In this lesson, students explore magnets to determine their strength, polarity, and how they attract and repel each other. Then they use the engineering design process to create inventions that use magnets to accomplish a task. During this lesson, the students will learn how the Earth's spheres interact with one another in order to support life on planet Earth.

    Students will consider the marketing campaigns of Gatorade to help identify what makes a substance an electrolyte. Students will plan and conduct an investigation to test common ionic and covalent substances to determine if the substance is an electrolyte or non-electrolyte when dissolved in solution.

    Students research and create a brochure project on an endangered species of their choice integrating aspects of math, science, social studies, art, reading and writing. This project allows the students to make connections across the curriculum. Students present their ideas to a group of peers persuading the group to help save or become interested in helping the endangered species. Students are also encouraged to make connections between the activities of the human population and their effect on the natural world. In this lesson, students will understand that in order to grow healthy plants, soil, water, light, and air must be provided.

    Students will use math skills such as measurement and science process skills such as observation, comparing, and recording data. This is an introductory lesson to a second grade weather unit. The students will be observing the weather each day for one week and recording their observations in a chart. The students will be integrating information from the Internet as well as what they learn in English by using adjectives in their descriptions. After the students have collected data for a week, in cooperative groups, they will predict the weather for the next week. The teacher will show the students guides or weather reports from past years for that particular week in order to guide them in the direction of an accurate prediction.

    The students will go to a technology lab to look up and record the weather from a teacher-selected web site. This lesson deals with human growth and our consumption of land resources. They experiment with different materials to build a "glove" that can protect their hands from a cold ice bath. A YouTube link to a similar demonstration is provided below. This lesson uses hands-on activities to discuss water filtration. Students will have the opportunity to explore water filtration by filtering water through a variety of materials and using potatoes to grow and test the bacteria levels of the water.

    With a focus on nanotechnology, this lesson discusses the benefits of embedding silver ions in filters to kill harmful bacteria. At the end of this lesson students will have the opportunity to put their knowledge to the test in a written discussion by designing a solution to a mock water crisis. This inquiry-based lesson provides an introduction to waves by using water waves to explore patterns of amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. Students will investigate water waves in slow motion. This inquiry-based lesson allows students to explore how energy is transferred through a wave.

    Students will describe features shown on topographic maps as they plan a route for a bicycle race around the school neighborhood. First, they will create clay mountains and learn how to make topographic maps of their landforms. Then they will interpret topographic maps made by other students in the class to match each mountain to its map. Finally, they will use topographic maps of the school campus to plan an exciting but safe bike race route. In this lesson, the students will learn that plants need water, air, nutrients, and sunlight to grow.

    Students will construct and test pendulums with varying weights, string types, release positions, and lengths. They will collect, graph, and analyze data to see which variables affect the speed of the pendulum in order to predict the movement of new pendulums. Then they will then use this data to solve a real-world problem and explain their thinking. During this lesson, the students will learn how matter transfers within an ecosystem and within the environment.

    In this simplistic, introductory lesson in Life Science, students will converse with peers to prepare a list of seven common characteristics in organisms after determining if pictured items are living or nonliving. Students will use background knowledge and pictures to identify patterns that represent all living organisms. After watching a short video, students will separate living and nonliving things by coloring or drawing an outdoor environment. Students will develop an understanding of volume and density by analyzing, calculating, and measuring a gummy bear.

    The students will determine the cause and effect of a water-soaked gummy bear. Students will measure water and gummy bear with accuracy, record data, and communicate their results. In this inquiry-based lesson, students will investigate how rainfall changes the land and causes runoff. The students will simulate a stream table to show how rainfall erodes the land. During this lesson, students will learn the different aspects of a wave, including the crest, trough, wavelength, and amplitude. Additionally, they will learn that waves cause objects to move.

    At the end of the lesson, they will be able to develop a model of waves and describe patterns. This could be the first lesson into waves that can jump start other lessons on other types of waves. Students will be able to locate the sun by using the Hertzsprung-Russel diagram to plot the sun's location. This lesson can be an opening activity, review activity, or a quick lab. In this lesson, students will share their background knowledge of gravity and how it affects skydivers.

    Finally, students will create a model helicopter to provide evidence that the gravitational force of earth will cause the helicopter to fall downward toward the center of Earth. The lesson provides an overview of cloud formation. Cloud formation results when warm, humid air rises and cools, causing the water vapor in the air to condense and form clouds. In this lesson, students will conduct an activity that demonstrates how this occurs.

    This lesson increases student knowledge of severe weather and weather forecasting. It emphasizes the importance of student questioning to obtain information. This investigation allows students to explore the real-life meaning of solar energy. Completed projects will be tested and then evaluated for effectiveness. Students will compare and give examples of density-independent and density-dependent factors and how they have an effect on the changing conditions on a lake.

    After establishing the difference between them, students will play a game where they change several factors and assess the effects of their changes to the environment. This lesson provides an introductory-level experience with soil. During the experiment, students will combine soil with water and conduct observations. The observations made will lead to greater understanding of soil's basic properties. The third installment of a three-part lesson on Newton's Laws of Motion, this lesson focuses on Newton's 2nd Law and offers review of all three laws.

    Students will complete graphic organizers to demonstrate their understanding of the three laws of motion. Students will work in tiered groups to prepare a brief presentation to share with the class on a real-life scenario demonstrating Newton's 2nd Law. This lesson allows students to construct solar system models showing the comparative sizes of the planets to a scale.

    The students will also use their models to carry out an investigation to analyze and interpret the distances between planets in the Solar System. This lesson uses common objects easily obtained by teachers. In this lesson, students will use technology to construct a model of a balanced ecosystem that shows how energy cycles from one organism to the next by completing research and writing short passages about their ecosystem.

    Students will then compare their balanced model ecosystem and describe a change or introduce an invasive species to show how the balance of their model ecosystem will change to adapt. Students will collect data on an investigation where two or more substances are mixed together.

    Schultze-Rhonhof, Gerd. The author is a retired German general. Sledge, E. Rooseveltus Road T George N. Stinnett, Robert B. Roosevelt deliberately sought war with Japan and denied information to the Army and Navy commanders at Pearl Harbor. Contends that Stalin was preparing to launch an invasion of Germany, but Hitler beat him to the punch.

    Tansill, Charles C. Back Door to War. Contains valuable material on the European diplomatic situation in the s. The Impact of Hitler Taylor, A. The Origins of the Second World War. Argues that World War II came about through accident and miscalculation rather than by design. Veale, F. Advance to Barbarism. Discusses the Allied responsibility for mass saturation bombing. The Best of David Gordon. Storm on the Horizon Justus D. Defend America First Czecho-Slovakia,: A cr Pearl Harbor: The Seed Percy L.

    Greaves Jr. Freedom Betrayed: Herb Europeus Road to P Jaksch Check Amazon for Pricing. Joseph M. Germanyus Economic Burton H. How the Far East Was L Desperate Deception: B Thomas E. Pearl Harbor: The Stor March The Britis Great Wars and Great L No Clear And Present D With the Old Breed: At Day Of Deceit: The Tru The Chief Culprit: Sta The Origins of The Sec Advance to Barbarism Veale Check Amazon for Pricing.

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